30 Aug 2017 --- Dark chocolate enriched with extra virgin olive oil is associated with an improved cardiovascular risk profile, according to research presented at a European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress this week. The study suggests that extra virgin olive oil might be a good food additive to help preserve endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are critical for vascular repair and maintenance of endothelial function.
“A healthy diet is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease,” says lead author Dr. Rossella Di Stefano, a cardiologist at the University of Pisa, Italy. “Fruits and vegetables exert their protective effects through plant polyphenols, which are found in cocoa, olive oil and apples. Research has found that the Italian Panaia red apple has very high levels of polyphenols and antioxidants.”
This study tested the association between consumption of dark chocolate enriched with extra virgin olive oil or Panaia red apple (see table) with atherosclerosis progression in healthy individuals with cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension or family history of cardiovascular disease.
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The randomized crossover study included 26 volunteers (14 men, 12 women) with at least three cardiovascular risk factors, who received 40 grams of dark chocolate daily for 28 days. For 14 consecutive days it contained 10 percent extra virgin olive oil, and for 14 consecutive days it contained 2.5 percent Panaia red apple. The two types of chocolate were given in random order.
Progression of atherosclerosis was assessed by metabolic changes (levels of carnitine and hippurate), lipid profile, blood pressure and levels of circulating EPCs.
Urine and blood samples were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Urine samples were analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for endogenous metabolites. Circulating EPC levels were assessed by flow cytometry. Smoking status, body mass index, blood pressure, glycemia and lipid profile were also monitored.
After 28 days, the researchers found that the chocolate enriched with olive oil was associated with significantly increased EPC levels and decreased carnitine and hippurate levels compared to both baseline and after consumption of apple-enriched chocolate. Olive oil-enriched chocolate was associated with significantly increased high-density lipoprotein (“good”) cholesterol and decreased blood pressure compared to baseline. There was a non-significant decrease in triglyceride levels with apple-enriched chocolate.
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